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Clinical Pharmacology

Health Professionals
Clinical Pharmacology
Human Pharmacology
Propax Dosing

Propax with NTFactor® represents a broad spectrum of moderately dosed nutrients inclusive of a full range of anti-oxidants, fat & water soluble vitamins, minerals, pre- & pro-biotics, phospholipids and glycolipids provided in tablets. Essential fatty acids (Omega 3) are provided in a soft gel capsule.

The nutrient compound NTFactor® makes this product a unique multi-nutrient preparation and is validated to improve membrane potential. NTFactor® , which in the literature has been referred to as Lipid Replacement Therapy (LRT), is used to replace damaged or oxidized cellular lipids that accumulate during aging and in various clinical conditions 1, as a nutrient delivery system and as a majority source of excipient and binder for the tablets in which it is present.

Pre-clinical studies demonstrate that NTFactor® will substantially stop the degradation of membrane and maintain functions such as energy and nerve. Further, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage is significantly mitigated. 2


NTFactor® Protection of Nerve Function Pre-Clinl3a
Pre-Clinl4a

LRT differs from traditional lipid nutritional supplementation because replacement lipids are protected from oxidation and damage during storage, ingestion and digestion. NTFactor® does this by combining the phosphoglycolipids (also called glycophospholipids) with foods and food extract that maintain anti-oxidative potential and also potentiates the restoration of healthy gastro-intestinal micro flora.

Among the most important lipids that require constant replacement are the phospholipids, glycophospholipids and other lipids that make up cellular and organelle membranes, especially mitochondrial membranes. Decreased mitochondrial function and loss in the efficiency of the electron transport chain within the inner mitochondrial membrane are related to aging and fatigue. Oxidative damage to mitochondria, mainly from Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), results in peroxidation of cellular and mitochondrial lipids, proteins and DNA, but it is ROS damage to mitochondrial membrane lipids that may cause the most rapid loss of mitochondrial function. LRT can circumvent ROS membrane damage and replace and restore mitochondrial and other cellular membrane functions because the replacement lipids are delivered in their unoxidized, undamaged states.

Lipids such as those found in various cellular compartments are in dynamic equilibrium in the body, and this is why LRT is possible. Orally ingested lipids diffuse to the gut epithelium and are bound and eventually transported into the blood and lymph using specific (carrier alipoproteins) and nonspecific (partitioning and diffusion) mechanisms.3-5 Within minutes lipid molecules are transported from gut epithelial cells to endothelial cells and then excreted into and transported in the circulation bound to lipoproteins and blood cells.5,6 Once in the circulation specific lipoprotein carriers and red blood cells protect lipids throughout their passage and eventual deposition onto specific cell membrane receptors where they can be taken into cells via endosomes and by diffusion.7 Even inside cells there are lipid transporters that deliver specific lipids to cell organelles where they are taken in by specific transport proteins and by partitioning and diffusion.8 Once undamaged lipids such as phosphotidylethanolamine are transported to mitochondria, they can use these to synthesize other lipids, such as phosphotidylserine. This system works efficiently probably due to the concentration gradients that exists from the gut during the digestion of lipids to their absorption by the gut epithelial cells and their transfer to the blood circulation, then to the tissues and ultimately to the cells’ interior. Similarly, damaged lipids can be removed by a similar reverse process that may be driven by lipid transfer proteins and by enzymes that recognize and degrade damaged lipids.9

Thus, by improving membrane characteristics NTFactor® is potentiating the absorption and transport of the broad range of nutrients present in Propax with NTFactor®

FOOTNOTES
1. Agadjanyan, M., Vasilevko, V., Ghochikyan, A., Berns, P., Kesslak, P., Settineri, R.A. and Nicolson, G.L. Nutritional supplement (NT Factor) restores mitochondrial function and reduces moderately severe fatigue in aged subjects. J. Chronic Fatigue Syndr. 2003; 11(3): 23-36.

2. Seidman M, Khan MJ, Tang WX, Quirk WS. Influence of lecithin on mitochondrial DNA and age-related hearing loss. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002; 127:138-144.

3. Hajri T, Abumrad NA. Fatty acid transport across membranes: relevance to nutrition and metabolic pathology. Annu Rev Nutr. 2002; 22:383-415.

4. Schmitz G, Langmann T, Heimerl S. Role of ABCG1 and other ABCG family members in lipid metabolism. J Lipid Res. 2001; 42:1513-1520.

5. Hamilton JA. Fatty acid transport: difficult or easy? J Lipid Res. 1998; 39(3):467-481.

6. Fellmann P, Herve P, Pomorski T, Muller P, et al. Transmembrane movement of diether phospholipids in human erythrocytes and human fibroblasts. Biochemistry. 2000; 39: 4994-5003

7. Conner SD, Schmid SL. Regulated portals of entry into the cell. Nature 2003; 422:37-44.

8. Mansbach CM, Dowell R. Effect of increasing lipid loads on the ability of the endoplasmic reticulum to transport lipid to the Golgi. J Lipid Res. 2000; 41: 605-612.

9. E. Bruce C, Chouinard RA, Tall AR. Plasma lipid transfer proteins, high-density lipoproteins, and reverse cholesterol transport. Annu Rev Nutr. 1998; 18:297-330.

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These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. The information provided on this site is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other health care professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. You should not use the information on this site for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem or for prescription of any medication or other treatment. You should consult with a healthcare professional before starting any diet, exercise or supplementation program, before taking any medication, or if you have or suspect you might have a health problem. You should not stop taking any pharmaceutical product without first consulting your prescribing physician.